head of Tyrannosaurus Rex

Evolution of Binding Sites: The Movie

This page gives supplementary material to the paper Evolution of Biological Information.

There are several versions of a movie of the evolution of a binding site. They are presented as sequence logos. The first movie gives the sequence logo for the best organism every 100 generations. This movie plays the fastest. The second movie gives the logos every 10 generations and will take 10 times longer. The third movie gives all 2000 generations (at one frame per generation) and so is 100 times longer than the first one.

The fourth and fifth movies also have 2000 images, but the gifs are set to play 10 and 50 times faster than the third movie.

The actual playing time will depend on how loaded my computer is and how fast the net connecting us is. You may need to download the entire file first to see it running at full speed on your machine.

Movie Number of
between frames
File Size
kb = kilobytes
mb = megabytes
per Image
movie #1 100 62 kb 0.5 Try this one first.
movie #2 10 614 kb 0.5 this one will be 10 times slower than #1
movie #3 1 5 mb 0.5 this one will be 100 times slower than #1
movie #4 1 5 mb 0.05 Same size as #3, but runs 10 times faster.
This one is quite sprightly! Try this one second.
movie #5 1 5 mb 0.01 Same size as #3, but runs 50 times faster.
This one is too fast for my taste!

The logos were generated by makelogo, a program of the Delila system. The movies were created using pstogif (A perl script v1.0, July 1994, by Nikos Drakos Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds that accompanies LaTeX2HTML Version 96.1) to convert each sequence logo from postscript to gif and gifmerge (a C program) to merge the gifs together.

Note: a faster way to make the gif images is to use the convert routine from www.imagemagick.com which calls ghostscript.

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chemistry, biology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory,
genetic engineering, sequence logos, information theory,
electrical engineering, thermodynamics, statistical
mechanics, hypersphere packing, gumball machines, Maxwell's
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Schneider Lab

origin: 1999 July 25
updated: 2012 Mar 08
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