Web Accessibility

"The power of the Web is in its universality.
Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect."

Tim Berners-Lee
W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web

     D      Furby.com home page without alt text from 1999.

furby.com as viewed with images turned off

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines in Haiku

General Web Accessibility Resources

  1. Could Helen Keller Read Your Page?
  2. A-Z to Deafblindness
  3. How People with Disabilities Use the Web
  4. Beyond Accessibility: Treating Users with Disabilities as People
  5. Great Resource Sites:
  6. Web Accessibility for All
  7. Designing More Usable Web Sites   Trace R & D
  8. EASI: Equal Access to Software and Information    access
  9. National Center on Accessibility
  10. The National Arts and Disability Center (NADC)     
  11. Guild of Accessible Web Designers
  12. Accessibility within [Company Name]
  13. Creating an Accessible Internet
  14. All Things Web: Compatibility & Accessibility
  15. Equal Access to Software and Information (EASI)   [Links]
  16. Usability testing at OCLC
  17. Dive Into Accessibility
  18. The Web Isn't for Everyone ... Yet
  19. Hints for designing accessible websites
  20. Designing More Usable Web Sites   [Trace Center, University of Wisconsin ]
  21. Alliance For Technology Access
  22. ALPHABET SOUP: A web designer's journey to standards and accessibility
  23. Policies Relating to Web Accessibility    W3C
  24. National / International
    1. Australian Government: Accessibility standards
    2. Government of Canada Internet Guide: Common Look and Feel Standards
    3. Diffuse: Guide to Web Accessibility and Design for All 
    4. Finnish Library for the Visually Impaired: Web Accessibility Guidelines
    5. Global Applied Disability Research and Information Network
    6. ICTA - International Commission on Technology and Accessibility
    7. Irish National Disability Authority: Accessibility Guidelines for Web
    8. JANET National User Group: Web Accessibility
    9. M C U: (The Making Connections Unit )    Scotland
    10. RNIB - Royal National Institute of the Blind  Accessible web design   UK
    11. United Nations: Accessibility on the Internet
    12. Websites are failing disabled: UN study
  25. Federal
    1. Census Bureau: Document Accessibility
    2. Department of Interior: Accessible Technology Services Center
    3. DoD: Computer Electronic Accommodations Program
    4. GSA: Section 508: The Road to Accessibility
    5. IRS.gov Accessibility   
    6. NASA:  NASA 508      Section 508: Online Help     Web Accessibility Made Easy
    7. National Cancer Institute:   Usability.gov 
    8. National Park Serivce: Help for Creating Accessible Web Pages
    9. NOAA: National Weather Service: Section 508 - Accessibility
    10. USDA: Guide to Creating a 508 Accessible Website
    11. Veterans Affairs:    Accessible Web Pages     
  26. State
    1. Connecticut: Universal Website Accessibility Policy    Six Steps to Accessibility Certification
    2. Illinois Web Accessibility Standards
    3. Illinois Center for Instructional Technology Accessibility
    4. Kansas Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
    5. Massachusetts: Web Accessibility Standards
    6. Minnesota: Accessibility Guidelines
    7. North Carolina: Work Group on Technology and Disability Policy
    8. Ohio: Universal Accessibility
    9. Oregon: Accessibility guidelines
    10. Pennsylvania : Internet Accessibility Design Guidelines
    11. South Carolina Web Site Accessibility Workgroup
    12. Texas: Web Accessibility & Usability    76(R) SB 801
    13. Utah.gov Accessibility Policy
    14. Virginia: Web Policy
    15. Washington:  Access Washington Styleguide
    16. Wisconsin: Deployment of Accessible Pages on the WWW
  27. County / City
    1. WCBC: Accessibility Guide for the website
    2. City of Austell, Georgia: Web Accessibility Guidelines
    3. City of San Jose Access Instructions
    4. City of San Mateo: Web Accessibility Guidelines
    5. Martin County, Florida Web Site Accessibility Guidelines
    6. Multnomah County, OR:   Accessibility Considerations
    7. The Official New York City Web Site STYLE GUIDE     
    8. Web Page Accessibility
  28. Education
    1. Arizona State University: Accessibility Information
    2. Cal State San Marcos: Web Accessibility
    3. California Community Colleges: Access Guidelines for Students with Disabilities
    4. Clemson University: Web Site Accessibility
    5. Indiana State University : Web Style Guide : Content Accessibility Guidelines
    6. MIT Web accessibility guidelines
    7. SCCC Guideline for Web Accessibility    A Guide to Web Accessibility
    8. Temple University INSTITUTE ON DISABILITIES   (PIAT)
    9. Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired
    10. UNC-Chapel Hill: Accessible Electronic Content: Guidelines
    11. University of Bradford: Web Accessibility     UK
    12. University of Minnesota Accessibility of Information Technology
      1. Web Accessibility Standards: comparison Table
    13. University of Sheffield  Making Web Pages Accessible To All   
    14. University of Washington    Accessible Web Page Design     DO-IT Links
    15. University of Washington: AccessIT: National Center on Accessible Information Technology in Education
    16. University of Washington: DO-IT Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology    AccessWeb
    17. University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point: Accessible Webpage Design: Resources
    18. University of Toronto   ATRC: Guide to Writing Accessible HTML
  29. Other
    1. att.com     Web Site Development      Accessibility Guidelines
    2. Viewable with Any Browser:     Accessible Site Design Guide
    3. Accessibility Features for this site   [Wired World]
    4. The MCU: Jim's Web Accessibility Weblog:  Guidelines for Building an Accessible Web Site
    5. e-bility   Accessible Web Design - Inclusive IT
    6. Beyond ALT Text: Making the Web Easy to Use for Users With Disabilities

Usability / Accessibility

  1. 10 Accessibility Blunders of the Big Players
  2. Usability.gov   [NCI: National Cancer Institute]
  3. Making Your Web Site Accessible to the Blind     [National Federation of the Blind]
  4. Criteria for optimal web design       (designing for usability)
  5. Guidelines for Creating Accessible Web Pages (and Sites) for People with Disabilities
  6. Universal Design Education Online
  7. HTML 4.0 Accessibility Improvements
  8. Building Accessible Web Sites in Seven Steps
  9. National Information Infrastructure (NII) Task Force
  10. BLS:  A Shaker Approach to Web Site Design
  11. Accessibility in Web Design
  12. Society for Technical Communication     Usability SIG    Accessibility
  13. Accessibility - Topics in Usability
  14. AWARE: Accessible Web Authoring Resources and Education   [ HTML Writers Guild ]
  15. Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program   [DoD]
  16. Viewable with Any Browser: Accessible Site Design Guide
  17. Web Accessibility: Web & Multimedia Accessibility Principles
  18. Accessible Webpage Design: Resources    [ University of Wisconsin- Stevens Point Library ]
  19. Accessibility and Web Site Appearance   [EEOC]
  20. Giving Blind People Access to Graphics
  21. Searching / Web
    1. Google Accessible Search 
  22. Design
    1. The 5 First Steps for Designing Accessible Web Sites
    2. Six Principles of Accessible Web Design
    3. Top 10 Accessible Web Authoring Practices
    4. 13 rules for accessible Web pages    [Federal Computer Week, Aug. 7, 2000]
  23. Cognitive
    1. A Cognitive Basis for Web Design
    2. Types of Cognitive Disabilities   [peepo]   [new SVG version]
  24. Building Web Sites for Seniors
    1. Making Your Web Site Senior Friendly   (PDF)
    2. Usability for Senior Citizens
  25. Vision / Color Vision Issues
    1. The American Academy of Ophthalmolgy
    2. Guidelines for Web Users with Low Vision    Change Colors
    3. Making Text Legible: Designing for People with Partial Sight
    4. General Color Information
    5. Color Deficient Vision
    6. Color Perception Issues
    7. Effective Color Contrast
    8. Considering the Color-Blind
    9. The Blind Readers' Page
    10. Web accessibility for screen magnifier users
    11. Making Your Web Site Accessible to the Blind
    12. Can Color-Blind Users See Your Site?
    13. The eye of the beholder - designing for colour-blind users (PDF)
    14. Ishihara Test for Color Blindness
    15. Effective Color Contrast   Making Text Legible
    16. Designing for the Color-Challenged: A Challenge
    17. Safe web colours for colour-defience vision
    18. "For Fun" Colour Vision Test
    19. Safe colours - Transformations (Hex)
    20. See how your webpage looks to a colour blind person
      1. CBC: Color Blindness Check       favelet / bookmarklet
      2. Vischeck
      3. Color scheme    Using the Color scheme 
      4. nColor        about

IBM Web Accessibility

  1. IBM Web Accessibility Checklist

W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)

  1. W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)     W3C
  2. The W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative Guidelines
  3. W3C Accessibility Developments
  4. Guide to WAI Content Guidelines
  5. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0     Checklist of Checkpoints
  6. Section 508 Web Standards and WCAG Priority 1 Checkpoints A Side-by-side Comparison
  7. What is the difference between the WAI guidelines and the Section 508 standards for Web accessibility?

Americans with Disabilities Act

  1. A Guide to Disability Rights Laws
  2. DisabilityInfo.gov
  3. ADA Home Page - ada.gov
  4. Department of Justice ADA Technical Assistance CD-ROM     order
  5. The Americans With Disabilites Act   [ the text ]
  6. Applying the ADA to the Internet: A Web Accessibility Standard
  7. U.S. Department of Justice ADA Title II Highlights
  8. Americans with Disabilities Act Document Center
  9. ADA celebrates 12th birthday with civic compliance
  10. A Progress Report on Fulfilling America's Promise to Americans with Disabilities
  11. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): 1990 - 2002
  12. Should Web-only businesses be required to be disabled-accessible?  [CNN.com Nov 7, 2002]
    1. amazon.com/access   Amazon
    2. Amazon Access: How Accessible?

Section 508

  1. The U.S. Access Board
  2. Workforce Investment Act of 1998 SEC. 508. ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.
  3. Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications (1194.22)    [June 21, 2001]
  4. The Sixteen Section 508 1194.22 Requirements & Instructions  [David's Page]
  5. Section 508: The Road to Accessibility
  6. Department of Justice Section 508 Home Page
  7. Accessibility Forum Website      Testbed
  8. 508 Definitions and Metrics      Existing Definitions Relevant to Section 508
  9. Federal IT Accessibility Initiative
  10. Accessible Electronic Information Technology - Section 508     Department of Veterans Affairs
  11. Section 508 Web Standards and WCAG Priority 1 Checkpoints A Side-by-side Comparison
  12. Section 508 Implementation Guidelines   [.doc 246 KB]
  13. Implementing Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act   Making Federal Web Sites Accessible
  14. JimThatcher.com Web Accessibility for Section 508 
  15. Section 508 Self-Evaluation
  16. Webmaster's Section 508 Discussion List    [Department of Veterans Affairs ]
  17. Accessibility Forum's    Section 508 demo and test page home  demo

508 vs WAI

  1. Section 508 Web Standards & WCAG Priority 1 Checkpoints: A Side-by-side Comparison
  2. Section 508 and WCAG Sidebar
  3. If a web site is WCAG A-Compliant and its author wants to be Section 508 compliant as well, these are the five standards he must address additionally.
    These are paragraphs 1194.22 (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p).

Specific Companies / Technologies

  1. Inclusive Technologies
  2. Adobe Contribute
    1. Macromedia - Accessibility : Accessibility and Macromedia Contribute for content contributors
  3. Adobe PDF
    1. access.adobe.com
    2. Making PDFs accessible: The big picture
    3. Accessibility checklist for COE Adobe Acrobat PDF files
    4. Online conversion tools for Adobe PDF Documents
    5. Adobe PDF Conversion by E-mail
    6. Accessibility of PDF documents
    7. Accessible PDF Creation Checklist   (MS Word 36 KB)
    8. PDF format is still not fully accessible
  4. AOL's Accessibility Policy
    1. Accessibility Techniques for Netscape Composer for Windows
  5. Apple - Education - People with Special Needs
  6. BrailleSurf
  7. CPB/WGBH National Center for Accessible Media
  8. IBM Accessibility Center
    1. IBM Guidelines for Writing Accessible Applications Using 100% Pure Java
  9. Macromedia Accessibility
    1. How Do I Create an Accessible Site?
    2. Creating accessible content using Dreamweaver MX 2004
    3. Accessibility Features of Dreamweaver MX and MX 2004
    4. Dreamweaver MX's accessibility features
    5. Accessibility Techniques for Macromedia Dreamweaver 3.0/4.0 for Microsoft Windows
    6. Macromedia Dreamweaver MX Accessibility Overview
    7. Dreamweaver extension for W3C Priority 1 and 2
    8. Macromedia 508 Accessibility Suite
    9. Macromedia Flash Accessibility
    10. Flash MX: Clarifying the Concept
    11. Flash MX: Moving Toward Accessible Rich Media
  10. Microsoft Accessibility    Index
    1. Making Your Web Sites More Accessible with Microsoft FrontPage 2002
    2. How to Make Accessible Web Content Using FrontPage 2000
    3. FrontPage 2000 Accessibility Techniques
    4. Microsoft and Section 508
    5. AccVerify SE for FrontPage   [WAI & 508]
    6. Illinois Accessible Web Publishing Wizard for Microsoft® Office
    7. PowerPoint
      1. How to Create Accessible PowerPoint Presentations from Scratch
      2. How to Make PowerPoint Presentations Accessible to Publish on the Web
  11. Opera
    1. Accessibility in Opera
    2. Using Opera to check for accessibility
  12. RESNA    Section 508   State Contact List
  13. SSB Technologies
    1. InFocus
  14. Sun Microsystem's Accessibility Program
  15. JavaScript accessibility issues

Tools / Resources / Validation

  1. A Review of Free, Online Accessibility Tools
  2. Bobby
  3. Accessibility Valet Demonstrator
  4. Cynthia Says Portal
  5. WAVE 3.0 - Web accessibility validator   
  6. Accessibility Toolbar (IE)
    1. Download
  7. Web Developer Toolbar: Firefox
  8. Internet Explorer Developer Toolbar
  9. Accessibility Tools & Wizards
    1. Accessibility Favelets
  10. Device Independence
  11. National Assistive Technology Research Institute
  12. High Technology Reading and Writing Devices for People with Vision Problems
  13. How Assistive Software Supports Web Accessibility
  14. Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All
  15. Technical Glossary
  16. Alternative Keyboards
  17. Accesskeys
  18. Alternative Mouse Systems
  19. Alternative Web Browsing    [W3C]
  20. An Introduction to Screen Readers   [S. Widmayer]
  21. Evaluation, Repair, and Transformation Tools for Web Content Accessibility   [W3C]
  22. Web Page Backward Compatibility Viewer
  23. NIST WebMetrics Tools
  24. NLM DocMorph    MyMorph
  25. Text Only
    1. TOM: The Text-Only Maker
    2. Betsie Home Page   Text Version of NSF Web Site   Graphic Version
    3. Usablenet assistive
      1. PSU: LIFT Text Transcoder
  26. Using free online tools to check web pages for accessibility
  27. Validating Websites for Accessibility with Macromedia Dreamweaver MX
  28. A-Prompt Project       The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre
  29. Testing plugins for Microsoft Internet Explorer
  30. Walkthrough of Compliance Testing using the A-Prompt Tool
  31. WebSAT    The Web Static Analyzer Tool from NIST
  32. Lynx
    1. Lynx Viewer
    2. lynx-me
  33. Vischeck
  34. Multimedia     Examples
  35. Descriptive Video Service    Sample Described clip from The Lion King
  36. Closed Captioning Web
  37. CPB/WGBH Center for Accessible Media    Rich Media     Learning Area
  38. Turning Accessibility Features On
  39. Readability
    1. Readability Test
    2. Everything you ever wanted to know about readability tests
  40. SMIL “smile”
    1. W3C Synchronized Multimedia Home page
    2. The CWI SMIL Page
    3. Accessible SMIL clips
    4. XHTML+SMIL Profile
  41. Captioning Technology:
    1. Captioning for the Web
    2. Real Media
      1. Captioning RealPlayer
      2. Real Media  (RealText & SMIL)
      3. SMIL and RealPlayer
    3. Quicktime
      1. Quicktime
      2. Captioning Quicktime
    4. Windows Media Player
      1. Captioning Windows Media
      2. Windows Media Home
      3. Windows Media  (SAMI & ASX)     
      4. Understanding SAMI 1.0
      5. Adding Closed Captions to Digital Media (SAMI)
    5. Media Access Generator (MAGpie)
      1. Media Access Generator (MAGpie)
      2. Using MAGpie to create caption
  42. Braille
    1. Braille Authority of North America (BANA)
    2. The Braille Website
    3. About Braille: Codes, Formats, Computers, and Braille ASCII
    4. Braille ASCII Chart
    5. Braille History
    6. BRL: Braille Through Remote Learning

Screen Access Software

  1. Assistive Device Behaviour Chart
  2. How Assistive Software Supports Web Accessibility
  3. Jaws - Henter-Joyce    The HTML Challenge
  4. Window-Eyes    Demo
  5. Comparing screen readers: JAWS and Window-Eyes
  6. Window Bridge
  7. outSPOKEN
  8. Artic Speech, Blind & Low Vision Computer Access Technology
  9. Screen Magnification
  10. Screen Magnification Software
  11. Large Print      [online service]
  12. Magnification Programs for the Computer Screen
  13. MAGic Screen Magnification Application
  14. the Screen Magnifiers Homepage      the Screen Magnifiers Homepage [Frames]
  15. Screen readers open Windows for the blind    [Federal Computer Week, Aug. 7, 2000]
  16. Comparing screen readers    [FCW.com, Aug. 7, 2000]
  17. Screen readers (Web AccessiBlog: Joe Clark: 2002.04.29)
  18. Videos: "Introduction to the Screen Reader" and "Screen Readers and the Web"

Voice Browsing

  1. Bell Labs Text-to-Speech Synthesis   [Pick a "voice"]
  2. Auditory Browsing in Web and non-Web Databases
  3. Real Audio
  4. What is a Speech Friendly Site?
  5. pwWebSpeak   pwWebSpeak Tutorial
  6. Browsers that talk to you
  7. Fast Browser
  8. WeMedia
  9. Philip's FreeSpeech Browser
  10. myIVAN     [voice browsing]
  11. OneVoice    [voice browsing]
  12. Voice Portals
    1. Voice "Portals" Let the Web Talk Back
    2. Voice Portals Scream $26 Billion Future
    3. Vocalis SpeecHTML   SpeecHTML Demos
    4. Audiopoint    [888-38-AUDIO]
    5. HeyAnita   1-800-44-ANITA
    6. Tellme Networks    Tellme Studio   1-800-555-TELL
    7. BeVocal    1-800-4-BE-VOCAL
    8. VoiceGenie
  13. VoiceXML
    1. VoiceXML Forum
    2. Voice eXtensible Markup Language (w3c)
    3. VoiceXML Reference
    4. Adapting Content for VoiceXML
    5. IBM Software: IBM WebSphere Voice Server
  1. The vOICe - Seeing with Sound
  2. VRML for the Blind


  1. An Example of an Inaccessible vs. Accessible Web Page
  2. Digital Picture Postcards   [All Image no Alt]
  3. The Dayton Art Institute   Access Art   Accessibility
  4. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke       Accessible Site
  5. Please select a Portfolio from the colored words
  6. Invoke an Epileptic Seizure   [Warning! - Could cause Epileptic Seizures]
  7. http://www.af.mil/
  8. http://www.army.mil/
  9. http://www.dol.gov/
  10. http://www.uscourts.gov/
  11. http://www.usda.gov/
  12. http://www.trustedcasinos.com/
  13. http://www.ci.miramar.fl.us/
  14. WebAIM
    1. WebAIM Low Vision Simulation
    2. WebAIM Dyslexia Simulation
    3. WebAIM Distractibility Simulation
    4. WebAIM Screen Reader Simulation
    5. WebAIM Dyslexia Simulatio
  15. Web Sites
    1. Accessible University Mock Site     Companion Guide
    2. Aquatic Arts Learn by Example
    3. WESA Homepage

WebLogs / Forums

  1. The MCU: Jim's Web Accessibility Weblog
  2. AccessifyForum.com: Accessibility Discussion Forums
  3. AnitraPavka.com - Accessible Usable Design - Accessibility Weblog
  4. VIP2 - visually important persons
  5. 30 days to a more accessible weblog
  6. Dive Into Accessibility: 30 days to a more accessible web site   [ Zip ]    [ PDF ]

Accessibility Training On-Line

  1. Introduction to Web Accessibility
  3. Section 508: The Road to Accessibility
  4. Access E-Learning   Site Map    [ Georgia Tech Research on Accessible Distance Education ]
  5. NWS   NOAA   Internet/Intranet Accessibility Tutorial
  6. Web Accessibility 101    [ University of Wisconsin-Madison ]

** Home ** Class Pages ** Site Map **

David J. Hark
P. O. Box 201 Shepherdstown, WV 25443-0201

Last updated: 30 July 2008


© 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 David J. Hark